Chemistry of Organic Minerals

Metal Amino Acid Chelates

Metal Amino Acid Chelates are minerals that are attached to one to three individual single amino acids with at least two bonds from each amino acid attaching to the mineral resulting in heterocyclic ring formations.
Formation of a heterocyclic ring is an absolute requirement for an amino acid chelate to exist.
The heterocyclic ring structure found in an amino acid chelate provides stability and protection during digestion for optimal mineral absorption.

Specific Metal Amino Acid Complexes

Specific Metal Amino Acid Complexes occur when an amino acid donates two electrons to the metal to form a bond.
These complexes attach a metal at only 1 end of the amino acid chain. There is little protection to the metal during digestion of a metal complex.
Complexed minerals are not chelates even when the complexing ligand is an amino acid.

Metal Amino Acid Complexes

Metal Amino Acid Complexes occur when one or more undefined amino acids donate two electrons to the metal to form a bond.
These complexes attach a metal at only 1 end of the amino acid chain. There is little protection to the metal during digestion of a metal complex.
The structure can be destroyed in the gastrointestinal track. If the metal is released from the complex, it will behave as if it were an inorganic metal.
Complexed minerals are not chelates even when the complexing ligand is an amino acid.

Metal Proteinates

Metal Proteinates are the result from the chelation of a soluble mineral salt with an amino acid and/or partially hydrolyzed protein.
By definition, a metal proteinate is large and therefore requires further digestion before any of its parts, including the metal portion can be absorbed.
Frequently the metal (is disassociated) during digestion before mineral absorption occurs.
Due to the varying nature of amino acid and/or hydrolyzed protein (ligands) used to make a metal proteinate, chelation has not been proven.

Metal Polysaccharide Complexes

Metal Polysaccharide Complexes result from complexing a soluble salt with a polysaccharide (sugar).
The product is generally an organic mineral matrix with questionable chemical bonding between the metal and the polysaccharide.
These are large molecules based on chains of simple sugars.
They lack stability and are easily broken in solution, freeing the metal back into its ionic state. They are not chelates.

Metal Methionine Hydroxy Analogue Chelate (MHTBa)

Metal Methionine Hydroxy Analogue Chelate (MHTBa)–Metal Propionate is the result of chelating a metal salt with a specific organic acid to form coordinate covalent bonds.
Is not an Amino Acid Chelate – no nitrogen present.
Mode of absorption different than Amino Acid Chelates.
Most highly absorbed form of Organic Trace minerals.
Ligand (Glycine is not broken down in rumen)
Minimum – 1 : 1 molar ratio
Electrically neutral – less susceptible to antagonisms such as iron, molybdenum, and mycotoxin binders.
Metal pulled into the system with the Amino Acid.

Chelation of minerals is a very precise science, only a specific amino acid chelate can resist digestion and maintain its integrity as it is absorbed though the gut.